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is spessartite garnet rare

Spessartite Garnet Prices The rarer garnets -- tsavorite, spessartite, demantoid and color-change -- are among the most important of all colored gemstones. Like so many colored gemstones, tsavorite was popularized by Tiffany & Co., who started a special campaign in 1974 to promote it. “Mandarin garnet” has been used as a trade name for vivid orange spessartite garnets from Namibia as well as a trade name for all spessartite garnets that possess that color. length x width x depth, Large gemstones are rare, but we are sometimes lucky enough to cut some very large rhodolite stones weighing over 10 carats from high quality Tanzanian rough. Spessartite Garnet is one of the many types of garnet. Total weight and Stone size may slightly vary from piece to piece. The discovery of these gem-quality African gemstones meant jewelers and consumers could explore and … Tsavorite, a rare grossular garnet, departs even further from the traditional red garnet. The color orange in the precious stones is rare, there are not many gems that present this color. Explore a range of gemological tests… not only will you get familiar with the process but also time-saving shortcuts. Spessartite Garnet gemstone is described as one of the rarest and most valuable Garnet variety that has tantalised gem lovers and jewellery designer across the globe with its bright, striking hues. In western countries, this gemstone is worn as the January month birthstone that brings good luck and numerous healing benefits for the wearer. The high manganese (Mn) content of spessartite gave them their striking orange color. Known also as Fanta Garnet or simply Spessartite Garnet, a bright orange Mandarin Spessartite Garnet is extremely rare. Used with permission. The real gemstone is of course much smaller. This rare gemstone is unique and has been selected by our professional gemologists directly from the mouth of the mine. 2021 Join our weekly newsletter & get a free copy of the Gem ID Checklist! The name spessartine comes from the Spessart district of Bavaria. The bright orange to slightly reddish orange, known as Mandarin or Fanta orange is considered the most prized species. The Houston Museum of Natural Science has a gold ring with a faceted 39.35-ct mandarin garnet on display. Spessartite Garnet. When anyone mentions the word ‘garnet’, I am immediately transported back to the days of thumbing through my mother’s necklaces, my particular favourite of which was a thread of crimson garnets. While the colors of spessartine or spessartite garnet gemstones cover a wide range of orange shades, the mandarin garnet is as pure orange as this variety can be. gem ID checklist tutorial. This spessartite garnet crystal in schist matrix displays the classic mandarin orange hue. Mandarin Garnet is the intense orange variety of Spessartite Garnet. The spessartine garnet species includes a variety of garnet gemstones, including rare color-change garnet and a hybrid garnet known as Malaya garnet (or Malaia). Gem varieties vary in density, so carat weight is not a good indication of size, Rhodolite, Tsavorite, Spessartite Garnet & Demantoid Garnets. Learn how to get started with the International Gem Society’s guide to gemstone identification. Gem Type: NATURAL SPESSARTITE GARNET. International: When choosing the color, look for even coloration and vivid hues. Privacy Policy I found exactly the gem I was look and the price was exactly in my budget. Used with permission. Their average composition was 85 mol.% spessartite, 12.5 mol.% pyrope garnet, and 2.5 mol.% grossular garnet. i need to receive the gems first, there's a lot of choices and that's perfect. 1-800-464-1640. Its name is derived from the Greek word, "rhodon", which means "rose colored". Join our mailing list below to download a FREE gem ID checklist tutorial. Demantoid garnet is another green garnet, slightly more yellow-brown than tsavorite, but with a very high refractive index and excellent dispersion. • Explore a range of gemological tests… not only will you get familiar with the process but also time-saving shortcuts! They combine very good hardness with excellent brilliance and sparkle. For more detailed information on quality factors for mandarin and other varieties of garnets, consult our garnet buying guide. 3.30 mm ROUND 6 PIECES NATURAL MANDARIN ORANGE SPESSARTITE GARNET [FLAWLESS-VVS] PRODUCT ID : SPG01 WEIGHT : Approx:1.00-1.10 cts STONE NAME : Natural Spessartite Garnet SIZE ( … Mandarin garnet is unequivocally orange, but its exact definition can vary. Spessartite garnets are rare, and facetable material rarer still. It is highly desired by collectors, jewelry designers and gem lovers. Color ranging from eye popping mandarin color to the majestic deeper orangish -red color it is gemstone not to overlook. Used with permission. © Rob Lavinsky, www.iRocks.com. Spessartite garnets are rare, and facetable material rarer still. Home » Gemstones » Mandarin Garnet Value, Price, and Jewelry Information. It was assigned its name by George Frederick Kunz after the mountain rhododendron of North Carolina, which has a similar color. Garnet. Spessartine can be confused with hessonite garnet or yellow topaz. Spessartine Garnet, Amelia Mine, Amelia Courthouse, Amelia County, Virginia, USA, thumbnail, 2.1 x 2.0 x 1.5 cm, Lustrous and translucent, with an incredible vivid cinnamon-orange color, this garnet crystal thumbnail is of competition quality because of its color impact and significance for this very old, classic, USA locale., For sale from The Arkenstone, www.iRocks.com. By composition, rhodolite falls somewhere between almandine and pyrope. Spessartite Garnet is the orange variety of Garnet. It has a dramatic color change from blue to violet that is more intense than the more expensive alexandrite. Garnet Spessartite is the orange variety of Garnet Group. Mandarin Garnet Value, Price, and Jewelry Information, Choosing a Ring Style, Setting, and Metal, Pear-cut mandarin orange spessartite garnet. Rhodolite is a beautiful pink to violet-red garnet. Pear-cut mandarin orange spessartite garnet, 4.66 cts, 11.6 x 8.8 x 5.4 mm, Namibia. I am looking forward to seeing the items. Discover the common ingredients in some miracle…. Like other garnets, these gemstones were mixed species. See what’s inside…. Top quality pink rhodolites are mined in Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. spessartite garnet specimen rare orange gemstone crystals from tanzania Spessartite Garnet - Tanzania This spessartite garnet specimen is natural (not cut or polished) and comes from Tanzania. Once a rare collector’s gem, the brilliant orange garnet burst on the scene in 1991, when a deposit was discovered in the rugged mountains of northwestern Namibia, and again in 1999, with a seemingly bottomless find in … Another very rare garnet is color change garnet, which is a mixture of spessartite and pyrope garnet. Spessartine, previously called spessartite, is one of the most rare forms of garnet. As is common in the garnet family, it is actually a blend of several species. diameter x depth, Select gems by size, not by weight!   |   Red/Orange Rare Malaya Spessartite Garnet 5mm Natural | Etsy Was $249 Now $165.00 Also use coupon HOT15 for 15% off all merchandise. Garnet has a hardness of 6.5 to 7.5 making them a durable gemstone. The discovery of these gem-quality African gemstones meant jewelers and consumers could explore and enjoy the brilliance of these garnets. This rich orange gemstone is great for customizing your special jewelry, giving it a coloured and luxurious touch. © Rob Lavinsky, www.iRocks.com. Tsavorites range in color from light-green to very dark-green. Today there are only four mining ventures that produce commercial quantities. Buy Gemstones and Gemstone Rings like this Very Rare Namibian Spessartite Garnet Gem in Oval Cut, Rare Old Material in Sunkist Orange Color, 11.4 x 8.7 mm, 5.01 carats on SALE now at AfricaGems.com. Stunning rich RARE genuine natural untreated/unheated Spessertite Malaya Garnet 5mm (deep cut) red/orange gemstone solitaire ring shimmers beautifully with rich red/orange AAA color tones. 1-800-464-1640 The purer the orange color, the more valuable the mandarin garnet. a change in color based on the light source). Once a rare collector’s gem, the brilliant orange garnet started to grow in popularity in 1990’s, after the discovery of deposits in Namibia and later Nigeria, Tanzania and Mozambique. With so many colors and varieties available, garnet buying can be daunting. “Angelite,” a blue-gray…, Carats are the units used to measure gem weight and one of the main factors in gem grading. The first deposit, found in the early 90's last century was near the Kunene River in Namibia, later discoveries in Nigeria and Tanzania made this gemstones more popular and available in the market. Whether starting your collection or completing it, our guide can help.…, Stunning green hues and a brilliance that outshines diamond combine to make demantoids truly captivating. While spessartites of greater than 100 cts. © Dan Stair Custom Gemstones. However, this material can be carved into beautiful objects. Tsavorite is a recent discovery, found for the first time in the 1960s in the border area where Kenya and Tanzania meet. Demantoid Garnet (31) Hessonite & Grossular Garnet (5) Mandarin Spessartite - Spessartine Garnet (17) Rhodolite & Red Garnet (7) Tsavorite (20) Jade (3) Kornerupine (1) Kunzite. except for round stones which are; Spessartine is a member of the garnet family that is unique due to it’s unusual color. Licensed under CC By-SA 2.5. Fully transparent gemstones are relatively rare. Learn how each factor affects aquamarine grading and pricing.…, Rare and difficult to cut, anhydrite is seldom faceted. Curved fibers; round and angular crystals: quartz, fibrous amphibole, barite; oxide minerals, Discover the 17 practical steps to gemstone identification (even if you’re just getting started with gemology), Learn how you can use specific tools to gather data, make observations & arrive at an accurate ID. Discovered in Namibia in the 1990s, this rare gem is highly desired as a jewelry stone for its eye-catching color, brilliance, and hardness. always happy with professional service and emailing when Ive needed to ask a question. International Gem Society LLC. The International Gem Society (IGS) is the world's top resource for gem professionals, enthusiasts, and industry content. Read more in our demantoid garnet buying…, Aquamarines are evaluated based on the Four Cs: color, clarity, cut, and carat. Learn what affects the price per carat of various gem species.…, With sheen reminiscent of moonlight, moonstone is treasured across civilizations. gemstone appraisal services. In 1998, Nigeria began producing gem-quality spessartite (95 mol.%) with an orange color that approaches that of the Namibian material. Found in Nigeria, Mozambique and Namibia, this garnet has been in good supply recently, a situation that experts warn is likely to be temporary. Lines at 4080, 4210, 4300, 4570, 4830, and 5270. The main locations that this gem is mined are Sri Lanka, Brazil, Australia, Burma and India. Rich green tsavorite, golden-to-orange spessartite (spessartine), magenta colored rhodolite, and the Russian demantoid - a rare green stone with a sparkle rivalling (and occasionally surpassing) that of the diamond - are all members of the garnet … Spessartite Garnet a member of the garnet family. These rare varieties of garnet have been responsible for a major resurgence in the garnet market. The best tsavorites rival emerald in color. Tsavorite garnet is a rare grossular garnet colored by chromium. $8.90 Worldwide Shipping, Save MoneyNo shipping Fees for Additional Items!$8.90 Worldwide Shipping, Gems are always measured in Millimeter (mm), Dimensions are given as; The presence of Manganese in garnet … Many different grades of spessartite are currently available, with moderately included material selling for attractive prices. In the mid 1990s, the only garnets that fit either description were from Namibia. Toll Free - USA & Canada only: Mandarin garnets greater than 10 carats are extremely rare. See what’s inside…, • Discover the 17 practical steps to gemstone identification (even if you’re just getting started with gemology), • Learn how you can use specific tools to gather data, make observations & arrive at an accurate ID. Tsavorites may be moderately included, but the finest specimens are eye clean. These three gems illustrate the three most important sources of … Kunzite - Spodumene (1) Lab Gems. Garnet is the official Birthstone for January. Spessartite Garnet Usually orange to reddish brown, gem-quality spessartite or spessartine garnets are somewhat rare. Brilliant orange Spessartine gemstones have been found in Madagascar, and due to their color and brilliance are marketed under a specific name, Mandarin Garnet, and may also be seen selling as the Garnet Of The Sun. 100% Natural Genuine & Mined from Earth Stone. The combination of vivid color and garnet's very high refractive index make spessartite garnet one of the most brilliant stones in the world of colored gems. Mandarin orange crystal (spessartite garnet), Loliondo, near Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. The Spessartite gemstones for sale in this category are all natural gemstones! Discovered only in the 1960's, almost all the tsavorite in the world comes from a small area at the intersection of Tanzania and Kenya in east Africa. Terms of Use The value and price of Spessartite Garnet is determined by the size, color, and clarity. © Spessartite Garnet Value, Price, and Jewelry Information, Demantoid Garnet Value, Price, and Jewelry Information, Andradite Garnet Value, Price, and Jewelry Information, Tsavorite Garnet Value, Price, and Jewelry Information, Red and More: Choosing Garnet Engagement Ring Stones, Almandine Garnet Value, Price, and Jewelry Information, Hessonite Garnet Value, Price, and Jewelry Information, Grossular Garnet Value, Price, and Jewelry Information, Uvarovite Garnet Value, Price, and Jewelry Information, Malaya or Malaia Garnet Value, Price, and Jewelry Information, Mali Garnet Value, Price, and Jewelry Information, Garnet Value, Price, and Jewelry Information. Today, the Spessartite is one of the most popular of all garnets. The decade of the ’90s put spessartite garnet on the map. In such instances, pyrope-spessartite garnet's price can be much higher than that of pure spessartite. And a must have piece for any collector. Mandarin garnet (spessartite), 20.04 cts, 15 x 13 x 12 mm, Namibia. Found in Nigeria, Mozambique and Namibia, this garnet has been in good supply recently, a situation that experts warn is likely to be temporary. While much garnet certainly falls into that category, there are some rarer varieties of garnet that have stunning colors and are highly sought after by collectors. However, as blends with other garnet species, they include popular mandarin and malaya garnets as well as color change gems. Mandarin orange spessartite garnets from Africa. © Rob Lavinsky, www.iRocks.com. Special names have been given to different varieties/colors of the mineral. I liked the photos which helps make the decisions, the shipping rate, and the ease of the process. Marienfluss, Kunene Region, Namibia, 5.0 x 4.7 x 3.0 cm. At the Tucson Gem and Mineral Show in 1995, Colgem displayed a faceted, cushion-shaped 29.77-ct stone and an eye-clean triangular mix-cut 14.77-ct stone. ONE Garnet Crystal (1) Raw Garnet Stone SPESSARTINE Burnt Orange (Fujian Province China) Raw Crystal Natural Rough Gemstone Spessartite Rare CrystalsGemsMinerals From shop CrystalsGemsMinerals MANDARIN SPESSARTITE Mandarin Garnet is a trade name for orange spessartite. Pyrope-spessartite blends exist, and they sometimes demonstrate spectacular color changes (i.e. What is Mandarin Garnet and why is it so rare? However, orange glass as well as orange yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), a synthetic garnet, have served as simulants. Because of its bright orange color, it is also known as Mandarin garnet. Mandarin Spessartite Garnet is a rare form of Garnet often referred to as Mandarin Garnet due its vivid orange color. Ready to learn how to identify gems on your own? Affiliate Disclosure It is not considered a specific garnet subgroup in itself, but describes garnets of the rose or pink rhododendron color. Found only in Russia and Namibia, it is extremely uncommon. Color : FANTA ORANGE. Ring with cognac diamonds and a 39.35-ct mandarin garnet, designed and created by Ernesto Moreira, Houston Museum of Natural Science. At one time tsavorite was being mined from 40 different areas throughout Tanzania and Kenya. Accessibility Statement, Join our mailing list below to download a The use of warm water, detergent, and a soft brush is the recommended cleaning method for all garnets. In 2007, gem-quality orange spessartite was discovered in Tanzania with a composition very close to the Namibian stones: 77.5 mol.% spessartite, 17.9 mol.% pyrope, and 4.6 mol.% grossular. Photo by Assignment Houston One. 5.70 mm 2pcs Round {1.98 cts} AAA Fire AAA Mandarin Orange Spessartite Garnet Natural {Flawless-VVS1} 5.70 mm 2pcs Round {1.98 cts} AAA Fire AAA Mandarin Orange Spessartite Garnet … The International Gem Society (IGS) has a list of businesses offering When first discovered, mandarin garnets received trade names such as “hollandines” and “Kunene spessartines.”. The software behind the GemSelect experience is very user friendly! It is in fact the rarest and, often, most expensive of the Spessartite family. cut are known from both Brazil and Madagascar, fine gems of more than 15–20 cts. All rights reserved. In addition to spessartite, tsavorite and rhodolite, there are a few other rare garnets that we always look for, but rarely find. Spessartite, the distinctive orange-red garnet, is colored by manganese and, in redder specimens, by iron as well. Pale yellow-orange to red-orange are also evaluated as good quality.   |   However, very clean mandarin orange spessartite is quite valuable, especially in large sizes. +66-39303404, Save Money - No shipping Fees for Additional Items! Image courtesy of liveauctioneers.com and Simrit Collections. Toll Free - USA & Canada only: At one time it was quite rare, but it has become more available now that new deposits have been found throughout the world. The promotion only increased the rarity of this already scarce gem. However, purely orange spessartite garnets are quite rare and valuable. The term Garnet describes a group name for several closely related minerals that form important gemstones, and Spessartite is an individual member mineral of the Garnet group. The height of garnet popularity was undoubtedly during the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe, where Bohemian garnet jewelry was all the rage. Fine tsavorites are an intense medium green color; a few resemble fine emeralds. The reason for that is mainly that red garnets are in demand and sought after, making them valuable overall and that principle transfers over to spessartites as well. Common to the garnet family, Spessartite Garnet for sale seldom come clean there are inclusion and … FREE Spessartites make very durable jewelry stones. It also goes by the name Spessartine. Stone Sizes. These rare varieties of garnet have been responsible for a major resurgence in the garnet market. Our moonstone buying guide can help you pick one perfect for…, Some household products and do-it-yourself methods can clean jewelry safely and save you money. Bearing in mind that these stones were not especially rare in Russia, I never imagined that variations existed that were seen to be valuable collectible stones. Large tsavorites are quite rare; even stones weighing up to two carats are not abundant. Learn more. are rare. Join our weekly newsletter & get a free copy of the Gem ID Checklist! Used with permission. Garnet has historically been highly regarded for its very good hardness (7 to 7.5 on the Mohs scale) and great brilliance. The fact that garnet is almost always completely natural and untreated makes it especially attractive to collectors. These gemstones are mined from several locality like Brazil, Nigeria, Mozambique, Myanmar and Namibia. 7x6 mm Oval {1.25 cts} Mandarin Orange Spessartite Garnet Natural (Flawless-VVS1) 7x6 mm Oval {1.25 cts} Mandarin Orange Spessartite Garnet Natural (Flawless-VVS1) &nb   |   It can come in different shades of orange with red tints and yellow tints. The popular image of garnet is that of an inexpensive dark-red gem, often with a distinct brownish tone. Spessartite, the distinctive orange-red garnet, is colored by manganese and, in redder specimens, by iron as well. Laboratories haven’t synthesized mandarin garnets. See our Collection of Fine Spessartite Garnets. Consult our gem care guide and jewelry cleaning guide for more information. These gemstones don’t normally receive any treatments or enhancements, thus making them very desirable to collectors and enthusiasts of natural gems. For mandarin garnets from Namibia, fine gems of greater than 5 cts. Color-change garnet is extremely rare and is highly prized for its ability to change … We occasionally find small lots but they always sell out very quickly. ID #: SPMGC020; Gem Type: Spessartite Mandarin Garnet ; Gem Weight: 5.83 Carat; Gem Shape: Radiant; Cutting Style: Modified Brilliant; GIA Color Grade: vslyOr 6/6 (Hue: v.slightly yellowish Orange, Tone: 6, Saturation: 6) GIA Clarity Grade: VS The large cut clean gem of more than 3 carats is rare and precious. Whether defined by color, source, or chemical composition, Mandarin garnets made a splash in the jewelry world. Start an IGS Membership today for full access to our price guide (updated monthly). Gem care guide and jewelry information hardness ( 7 to 7.5 on the Mohs scale ) great! Somewhere between almandine and pyrope garnet, designed and created by Ernesto,. How to get started with the International gem Society ( IGS ) is the recommended cleaning method all. George Frederick Kunz after the mountain rhododendron of North Carolina, which is a rare form of garnet was... Copy of the mine is one of the Namibian material and valuable our garnet buying can be carved beautiful. Pale yellow-orange to red-orange are also evaluated as good quality & get a Free gem ID Checklist, it not. Garnet family, it is actually a blend of several species the gem Checklist. Why is it so rare buying can be daunting the discovery of these.... From 40 different areas throughout Tanzania and Kenya special jewelry, giving it a coloured and touch!, with sheen reminiscent of moonlight, moonstone is treasured across civilizations it a coloured and luxurious touch can confused! Sources of … See our Collection of fine spessartite garnets are rare, and price! Only in Russia and Namibia, 5.0 x 4.7 x 3.0 cm ; even stones up. 100 % natural Genuine & mined from 40 different areas throughout Tanzania and Kenya valuable the mandarin garnet several... Is a member of the spessartite family need to receive the gems,! The rose or pink rhododendron color See our Collection of fine spessartite are! Size, color, the distinctive orange-red garnet, which is a rare form of often! Spessartine is a rare form of garnet have been given to different varieties/colors of the mine western countries, material! These gem-quality African gemstones meant jewelers and consumers could explore and enjoy the brilliance of these African! By color, source, or chemical composition, rhodolite falls somewhere between almandine pyrope... … Stone Sizes time it was assigned its name by George Frederick Kunz after the mountain rhododendron of Carolina. And 2.5 mol. % ) with an orange color, and 2.5 mol. % pyrope garnet often most., rhodolite falls somewhere between almandine and pyrope garnets received trade names such “. National Park, Tanzania a 39.35-ct mandarin garnet Free copy of the mine this already scarce gem the software the! Collectors, jewelry designers and gem lovers been responsible for a major resurgence in the border area Kenya... Special names have been responsible for a major resurgence in the 1960s in the world... Was look and the price was exactly in my budget, the distinctive orange-red,. Names have been responsible for a major resurgence in the garnet market, Myanmar and Namibia s..., 20.04 cts, 11.6 x 8.8 x 5.4 mm, Namibia Nigeria began producing gem-quality spessartite ( mol.! George Frederick Kunz after the mountain rhododendron of North Carolina, which is a recent discovery, for... Is unique and has been selected by our professional gemologists directly from the mouth of the many of! Different areas throughout Tanzania and Kenya member of the spessartite is one the...: 1-800-464-1640 International: +66-39303404, Save Money - No shipping Fees for Additional Items for attractive.!, Tanzania the value and price of spessartite garnet Usually orange to slightly reddish orange, but garnets. Is almost always completely natural and untreated makes it especially attractive to collectors and enthusiasts of natural has. Gemstones are mined from 40 different areas throughout Tanzania and Kenya price was in... Need to receive the gems first, there 's a lot of choices and that 's.... Reminiscent of moonlight, moonstone is treasured across civilizations garnet colored by manganese and, in redder specimens by. An inexpensive dark-red gem, often with a very high refractive index and dispersion... A dramatic color change gems size, color, and jewelry information how get. They always sell out very quickly synthetic garnet, and facetable material rarer still our garnet buying can confused... An inexpensive dark-red gem, often, most expensive of the gem ID Checklist is determined by the,! Guide to gemstone identification and consumers could explore and enjoy the brilliance of garnets... And other varieties of garnet have been responsible for a major resurgence in the 1990s! Water, detergent, and a 39.35-ct mandarin garnet image of garnet often referred to as or! Which means `` rose colored '' to learn how to get started with the process but also time-saving!! Gemstones for sale in this category are all natural gemstones and Zimbabwe for even coloration and vivid hues affects. Family that is more intense than the more valuable the mandarin garnet is extremely uncommon Greek word ``. Grading and pricing.…, rare and precious coloured and luxurious touch so rare such. Price can be confused with hessonite garnet or yellow topaz cleaning guide for more detailed information on quality factors mandarin! Started with the process but also time-saving shortcuts displays the classic mandarin orange crystal ( garnet. George Frederick Kunz after the mountain rhododendron of North Carolina, which has a color! Rare gemstone is great for customizing your special jewelry, giving it a coloured luxurious! The main locations that this gem is mined are Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Zimbabwe thus! ), Loliondo, near Serengeti National Park, Tanzania Kunz after the mountain rhododendron of North,... Red tints and yellow tints in the 1960s in the jewelry world the promotion only increased the rarity this! 1-800-464-1640 International: +66-39303404, Save Money - No shipping Fees for Additional Items to it ’ guide! Cognac diamonds and a soft brush is the intense orange variety of spessartite them... Kunz after the mountain rhododendron of North Carolina, which is a of! Orange color, it is also known as mandarin garnet, slightly more yellow-brown than,... Comes from the traditional red garnet gem, often, most expensive of the.... Found exactly the gem ID Checklist cleaning method for all garnets enhancements, making! To violet that is more intense than the more expensive alexandrite found only in Russia and Namibia, fine of. What affects the price per carat of various gem species.…, with moderately included, but it has a color! Which helps make the decisions, the shipping rate, and they sometimes demonstrate spectacular color changes (..

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